• Physical Therapy Blog

My Continued Electric Stimulation Headache Data

My Continued Electric Stimulation Headache Data

  The following is my headache results with electric muscle stimulation (EMS) and builds on a prior blog where I did the same thing but with somewhat different electrode placement, and slightly different parameters programmed into my EMS machines. Treatment...

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Chad Reilly May 3, 2016 2 Comments

EMS, High-Frequency Fatigue and Pain, Particularly Headaches & Back Pain

EMS, High-Frequency Fatigue and Pain, Particularly Headaches & Back Pain

I needed a break from fasting papers and, while I’m a big, BIG fan of EMS, and to a substantially lesser extent TENS, I am underwhelmed by high “kilohertz-frequency” alternating type currents as is commonly used in Russian stimulation for...

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Chad Reilly April 8, 2016 1 Comment

Carbonized Rubber Electrodes Best for EMS & TENS

Carbonized Rubber Electrodes Best for EMS & TENS

Factors influencing quadriceps femoris muscle torque using transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation.Physical Therapy. 1991 Oct;71(10):715-21; discussion 722-3. Lieber RL, Kelly MJ. Abstract Quadriceps femoris muscle torque was measured in 40 subjects during transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Three different electrode types...

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Chad Reilly June 26, 2015 5 Comments

TENS, More Electric Stimulation is Better than Less

TENS, More Electric Stimulation is Better than Less

Adjusting pulse amplitude during transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) application produces greater hypoalgesia.Pantaleão MA, Laurino MF, Gallego NL, Cabral CM, Rakel B, Vance C, Sluka KA, Walsh DM, Liebano RE. J Pain. 2011 May;12(5):581-90. Abstract Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)...

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Chad Reilly June 17, 2015 2 Comments

TENS Electrodes Work Best Over Muscle or Soft Tissue

TENS Electrodes Work Best Over Muscle or Soft Tissue

An investigation into the magnitude of the current window and perception of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) sensation at various frequencies and body sites in healthy human participants. Hughes N, Bennett MI, Johnson MI.Clin J Pain. 2013 Feb;29(2):146-53. Abstract INTRODUCTION:...

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Chad Reilly June 17, 2015 No Comments

Electroacupuncture and Motor Points

Electroacupuncture and Motor Points

Bilateral effects of 6 weeks' unilateral acupuncture and electroacupuncture on ankle dorsiflexors muscle strength: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 Jan;93(1):50-5. Zhou S1, Huang LP, Liu J, Yu JH, Tian Q, Cao LJ. Normally I could completely disregard...

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Chad Reilly June 9, 2015 No Comments

Notes from My Year of Electric Muscle Stimulation

Notes from My Year of Electric Muscle Stimulation

"My own results have been so favorable that I am not interesting in debating whether or not EMS works but rather in optimizing the use of EMS in the training of elite athletes." Charlie Francis About August or September of...

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Chad Reilly June 2, 2015 30 Comments

Electrical Stimulation for Paraplegia (Good News and Bad)

Electrical Stimulation for Paraplegia (Good News and Bad)

Muscle biopsies show that FES of denervated muscles reverses human muscle degeneration from permanent spinal motoneuron lesion. Kern H, Rossini K, Carraro U, Mayr W, Vogelauer M, Hoellwarth U, Hofer C.  J Rehabil Res Dev. 2005 May-Jun;42(3 Suppl 1):43-53. Abstract...

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Chad Reilly June 2, 2015 7 Comments

Electrical Stimulation for Aerobics

Electrical Stimulation for Aerobics

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation can elicit aerobic exercise response without undue discomfort in healthy physically active adults. Crognale D, Vito GD, Grosset JF, Crowe L, Minogue C, Caulfield B. J Strength Cond Res. 2013 Jan;27(1):208-15.[Free Full Text] Abstract Recent studies have...

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Chad Reilly May 31, 2015 3 Comments

Exercise Won’t Selectively Activate the VMO but Electric Stimulation Will

Exercise Won’t Selectively Activate the VMO but Electric Stimulation Will

Effects of electrical stimulation of vastus medialis obliquus muscle in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: an electromyographic analysis. Garcia FR1, Azevedo FM, Alves N, Carvalho AC, Padovani CR, Negrão Filho RF. Rev Bras Fisioter. 2010 Nov-Dec;14(6):477-82. Abstract BACKGROUND: The use...

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Chad Reilly May 1, 2015 No Comments

Electric Stim to Prevent DVTs After Total Hip Replacement

Electric Stim to Prevent DVTs After Total Hip Replacement

Haemodynamic performance of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) during recovery from total hip arthroplasty. Broderick BJ, Breathnach O, Condon F, Masterson E, Ólaighin G. J Orthop Surg Res. 2013 Mar 5;8:3. Abstract BACKGROUND: Patients post total hip arthroplasty (THA) remain at high...

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Chad Reilly April 14, 2015 No Comments

EMS Effects the Brain as well as Muscles

EMS Effects the Brain as well as Muscles

Functional MRI determination of a dose-response relationship to lower extremity neuromuscular electrical stimulation in healthy subjects. Exp Brain Res. 2003 May;150(1):33-9. Epub 2003 Mar 27. Smith GV1, Alon G, Roys SR, Gullapalli RP. Abstract Although empirical evidence supports the use...

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Chad Reilly December 18, 2014 No Comments

Electric Stimulation and Plantar Fasciitis

Electric Stimulation and Plantar Fasciitis

Use of low-frequency electrical stimulation for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2009 Nov-Dec;99(6):481-8. Stratton M1, McPoil TG, Cornwall MW, Patrick K. Abstract BACKGROUND: Recent research has discussed the use of low-frequency electrical stimulation to increase...

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Chad Reilly October 10, 2014 1 Comment

Electric Muscle Stimulation for Athletes

Electric Muscle Stimulation for Athletes

Electromyostimulation--a systematic review of the effects of different electromyostimulation methods on selected strength parameters in trained and elite athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2012 Sep;26(9):2600-14. Filipovic A1, Kleinöder H, Dörmann U, Mester J. Abstract This is the first part of...

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Chad Reilly August 7, 2014 No Comments

Fibromyalgia Pain Decreased 30% with TENS and Exercise

Fibromyalgia Pain Decreased 30% with TENS and Exercise

Effectiveness of high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation at tender points as adjuvant therapy for patients with fibromyalgia. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2013 Apr;49(2):197-204. Carbonario F, Matsutani LA, Yuan SL, Marques AP. Abstract BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome...

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Chad Reilly July 31, 2014 No Comments

Fibromyalgia Improved Immediatley with TENS

Fibromyalgia Improved Immediatley with TENS

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation reduces pain, fatigue and hyperalgesia while restoring central inhibition in primary fibromyalgia. Pain. 2013 Nov;154(11):2554-62. Dailey DL, Rakel BA, Vance CG, Liebano RE, Amrit AS, Bush HM, Lee KS, Lee JE, Sluka KA. Abstract Because transcutaneous...

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Chad Reilly July 29, 2014 No Comments

Central Sensitization and Chronic Pain

Central Sensitization and Chronic Pain

Central sensitization: implications for the diagnosis and treatment of pain. Pain. 2011 Mar;152(3 Suppl):S2-15. Woolf CJ. [FREE FULL TEXT] Abstract Nociceptor inputs can trigger a prolonged but reversible increase in the excitability and synaptic efficacy of neurons in central nociceptive pathways,...

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Chad Reilly July 26, 2014 No Comments

Greater EMS Rate Causes Greater Blood Flow with Peripheral Artery Disease

Greater EMS Rate Causes Greater Blood Flow with Peripheral Artery Disease

Calf muscle stimulation with the Veinoplus device results in a significant increase in lower limb inflow without generating limb ischemia or pain in patients with peripheral artery disease. J Vasc Surg. 2013 Mar;57(3):714-9. Abraham P1, Mateus V, Bieuzen F, Ouedraogo...

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Chad Reilly July 21, 2014 4 Comments

Electric Stimulation and Peripheral Vascular Disease

Electric Stimulation and Peripheral Vascular Disease

Chronic muscle stimulation improves ischaemic muscle performance in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Eur J Vasc Surg. 1994 Jul;8(4):419-22. Tsang GM1, Green MA, Crow AJ, Smith FC, Beck S, Hudlicka O, Shearman CP. Abstract There is currently no established treatment...

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Chad Reilly July 21, 2014 3 Comments

Electric Muscle Stimulation Helps Rheumatoid Arthritis

Electric Muscle Stimulation Helps Rheumatoid Arthritis

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and volitional exercise for individuals with rheumatoid arthritis: a multiple-patient case report. Physical Therapy. 2007 Aug;87(8):1064-77. Piva SR1, Goodnite EA, Azuma K, Woollard JD, Goodpaster BH, Wasko MC, Fitzgerald GK. Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Muscle atrophy is...

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Chad Reilly July 21, 2014 No Comments

EMS Increases Circulation and Function with Severe PVD

EMS Increases Circulation and Function with Severe PVD

The influence of electrostimulation on the circulation of the remaining leg in patients with one-sided amputation. Angiology. 2002 May-Jun;53(3):329-35. Presern-Strukelj M1, Poredos P. Abstract The aim of the authors' study was to investigate, in patients with one leg amputated, the influence of...

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Chad Reilly July 18, 2014 No Comments

Electric Stimulation Increases Capillary Number and Oxygenation in Peripheral Vascular Disease

Electric Stimulation Increases Capillary Number and Oxygenation in Peripheral Vascular Disease

Noninvasive augmentation of microvessel number in patients with peripheral vascular disease. J Vasc Surg. 2003 Dec;38(6):1309-12. Clover AJ, McCarthy MJ, Hodgkinson K, Bell PR, Brindle NP. Abstract OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic angiogenesis has great potential for the treatment of ischemic diseases. One...

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Chad Reilly July 17, 2014 No Comments

Electric Stimulation for Intermittent Claudication

Electric Stimulation for Intermittent Claudication

Chronic transcutaneous electrical stimulation of calf muscles improves functional capacity without inducing systemic inflammation in claudicants. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2004 Feb;27(2):201-9. Anderson SI, Whatling P, Hudlicka O, Gosling P, Simms M, Brown MD. Abstract OBJECTIVES: To assess whether...

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Chad Reilly July 11, 2014 6 Comments

Electrical Stimulation to Treat Cluster Headaches

Electrical Stimulation to Treat Cluster Headaches

Nociception specific supraorbital nerve stimulation may prevent cluster headache attacks: Serendipity in a blink reflex study. Cephalalgia. 2014 Mar 10. [Epub ahead of print] Haane DY1, Koehler PJ. Abstract BACKGROUND: In cluster headache, neuromodulation is offered when patients are refractory...

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Chad Reilly June 25, 2014 No Comments

Migraine Headache Prevention with TENS (Cefaly Effectiveness Study)

Migraine Headache Prevention with TENS (Cefaly Effectiveness Study)

Migraine prevention with a supraorbital transcutaneous stimulator: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology. 2013 Feb 19;80(8):697-704. Schoenen J, Vandersmissen B, Jeangette S, Herroelen L, Vandenheede M, Gérard P, Magis D. Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess efficacy and safety of trigeminal neurostimulation with...

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Chad Reilly June 21, 2014 13 Comments

Safety and Satisfaction of Cefaly (Headband TENS) for Headaches

Safety and Satisfaction of Cefaly (Headband TENS) for Headaches

Safety and patients' satisfaction of transcutaneous supraorbital neurostimulation (tSNS) with the Cefaly® device in headache treatment: a survey of 2,313 headache sufferers in the general population. J Headache Pain. 2013 Dec 1;14:95. doi: 10.1186/1129-2377-14-95. Magis D, Sava S, d'Elia TS,...

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Chad Reilly June 21, 2014 3 Comments

Migraine Headaches, Electric Stimulation and Paresthesia Concordancy

Migraine Headaches, Electric Stimulation and Paresthesia Concordancy

Peripheral neuromodulation and headaches: history, clinical approach, and considerations on underlying mechanisms. Reed KL. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2013 Jan;17(1):305.< From the Review: “With the publication of their “Gate Control Theory” of pain modulation in 1965, Wall and Melzack provided...

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Chad Reilly June 13, 2014 No Comments

EMS Decreases Pain, Numbness, Burning, and Improves Sleep with Neuropathy

EMS Decreases Pain, Numbness, Burning, and Improves Sleep with Neuropathy

External electric muscle stimulation improves burning sensations and sleeping disturbances in patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic neuropathy.  Pain Med. 2009 Mar;10(2):413-9.  Humpert PM, Morcos M, Oikonomou D, Schaefer K, Hamann A, Bierhaus A, Schilling T, Nawroth PP. OBJECTIVE:...

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Chad Reilly June 3, 2014 No Comments

Electric Muscle Stimulation Better than TENS for Neuropathy

Electric Muscle Stimulation Better than TENS for Neuropathy

Effective treatment of symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy by high-frequency external muscle stimulation. Diabetologia. 2005 May;48(5):824-8.  Reichstein L, Labrenz S, Ziegler D, Martin S. Abstract AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetic distal symmetrical sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) affects 20-30% of diabetic patients. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)...

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Chad Reilly June 3, 2014 No Comments

Electric Stimulation Complementary with Drug Treatment for Neuropathy

Electric Stimulation Complementary with Drug Treatment for Neuropathy

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Effectiveness of electrotherapy and amitriptyline for symptomatic relief. Diabetes Care. 1998 Aug;21(8):1322-5. Kumar D, Alvaro MS, Julka IS, Marshall HJ. From the study: Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of combining electrotherapy with amitriptyline for the management...

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Chad Reilly June 2, 2014 No Comments

Electric Stimulation Decreases/Eliminates Painful Neuropathy

Electric Stimulation Decreases/Eliminates Painful Neuropathy

  Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: amelioration of pain with transcutaneous electrostimulation. Diabetes Care. 1997 Nov;20(11):1702-5. Kumar D, Marshall HJ. Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of transcutaneous electrotherapy for chronic painful peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN...

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Chad Reilly June 2, 2014 No Comments

EMS Better than TENS for Pain

EMS Better than TENS for Pain

Combined neuromuscular electrical stimulation and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for treatment of chronic back pain: a double-blind, repeated measures comparison. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997 Jan;78(1):55-60. Moore SR1, Shurman J. INTERVENTIONS: Subjects self-administered NMES, combined NMES/TENS, TENS, and placebo treatments....

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Chad Reilly May 2, 2014 No Comments

Electric Stimulation Increases Strength and Decreases Pain in Patients with Osteoarthritis

Electric Stimulation Increases Strength and Decreases Pain in Patients with Osteoarthritis

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) reduces structural and functional losses of quadriceps muscle and improves health status in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Orthop Res. 2013 Apr;31(4):511-6. From the study: “OA patients presented smaller vastus lateralis thickness (11.9 mm) and fascicle...

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Chad Reilly May 1, 2014 No Comments

Electric Muscle Stimulation Prevents Atrophy after Total Knee Replacement

Electric Muscle Stimulation Prevents Atrophy after Total Knee Replacement

Early neuromuscular electrical stimulation to improve quadriceps muscle strength after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial. Physical Therapy. 2012 Feb;92(2):210-26. Stevens-Lapsley JE1, Balter JE, Wolfe P, Eckhoff DG, Kohrt WM. From the study: “Sixty-six patients, aged 50 to 85...

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Chad Reilly April 28, 2014 No Comments

Physical Therapy after Total Knee Arthoplasty: Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Causes a Significant Boost in Quadriceps Strength

Physical Therapy after Total Knee Arthoplasty: Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Causes a Significant Boost in Quadriceps Strength

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for quadriceps muscle strengthening after bilateral total knee arthroplasty: a case series. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2004 Jan;34(1):21-9. Abstract STUDY DESIGN: A case series. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this case series was to assess...

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Chad Reilly April 28, 2014 No Comments

Physical Therapy and EMS after Total Knee Arthoplasty: More Current = More Muscle

Physical Therapy and EMS after Total Knee Arthoplasty: More Current = More Muscle

Relationship between intensity of quadriceps muscle neuromuscular electrical stimulation and strength recovery after total knee arthroplasty. Physical Therapy. 2012 Sep;92(9):1187-96. Abstract BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can facilitate the recovery of quadriceps muscle strength after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), yet...

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Chad Reilly April 28, 2014 No Comments

Electric Muscle Stimulation Well Tolerated by Patients at Sufficient Intensities to Strengthen Muscle after Total Knee Replacement

Electric Muscle Stimulation Well Tolerated by Patients at Sufficient Intensities to Strengthen Muscle after Total Knee Replacement

Response of male and female subjects after total knee arthroplasty to repeated neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2010 Jun;89(6):464-72. Abstract OBJECTIVES: To examine responses to repeated neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the quadriceps...

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Chad Reilly April 28, 2014 No Comments

Cluster Headaches and Migraines, What I Am Learning from the Surgically Implanted Electrical Stimulation Studies.

Cluster Headaches and Migraines, What I Am Learning from the Surgically Implanted Electrical Stimulation Studies.

Greater occipital nerve stimulation via the Bion microstimulator: implantation technique and stimulation parameters. Clinical trial: NCT00205894. Pain Physician. 2009 May-Jun;12(3):621-8. Abstract BACKGROUND: Millions of patients suffer from medically refractory and disabling primary headache disorders. This problem has led to a...

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Chad Reilly April 25, 2014 No Comments

Electric Stimulation for Headaches, Migraines (My Results)

Electric Stimulation for Headaches, Migraines (My Results)

This treatment is serendipitous, so I’ll add some background information on how I came to it.  As shown by my other blogs, in the last year I’ve been especially interested in electric muscle stimulation (EMS) to help recovery by accelerating...

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Chad Reilly April 23, 2014 3 Comments

Electric Muscle Stimulation BEFORE Total Knee Replacement Improves Outcomes

Electric Muscle Stimulation BEFORE Total Knee Replacement Improves Outcomes

“Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010 Jun 14;11:119. ” <br) BACKGROUND: Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint...

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Chad Reilly April 22, 2014 No Comments