• Physical Therapy Blog

Exercise Won’t Selectively Activate the VMO but Electric Stimulation Will

Exercise Won’t Selectively Activate the VMO but Electric Stimulation Will

Effects of electrical stimulation of vastus medialis obliquus muscle in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: an electromyographic analysis. Garcia FR1, Azevedo FM, Alves N, Carvalho AC, Padovani CR, Negrão Filho RF. Rev Bras Fisioter. 2010 Nov-Dec;14(6):477-82. Abstract BACKGROUND: The use...

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Chad Reilly May 1, 2015 2 Comments

Osteoarthritis and Obesity

Osteoarthritis and Obesity

This blog is a request of my Aunt who asked if I could post anything relating to obesity and extra wear and tear on the the joints (aka osteoarthritis). It’s considered common knowledge in medicine that obesity increases the risk...

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Chad Reilly March 4, 2015 3 Comments

Return to NBA after ACL Reconstruction

Return to NBA after ACL Reconstruction

Return-to-Sport and Performance After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in National Basketball Association Players. Harris JD, Erickson BJ, Bach BR Jr, Abrams GD, Cvetanovich GL, Forsythe B, McCormick FM, Gupta AK, Cole BJ. Sports Health. 2013 Nov;5(6):562-8. Abstract BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate...

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Chad Reilly November 25, 2014 No Comments

Muscle Strength Protective Against Arthritis

Muscle Strength Protective Against Arthritis

The role of muscles in joint degeneration and osteoarthritis. J Biomech. 2007;40 Suppl 1:S54-63. Epub 2007 Apr 16. Herzog W1, Longino D. Abstract The purpose of this work was to establish a controlled and reversible muscle weakness model for studying...

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Chad Reilly November 11, 2014 1 Comment

Resistance Training Improves Running Biomechanics

Resistance Training Improves Running Biomechanics

Resistance training is accompanied by increases in hip strength and changes in lower extremity biomechanics during running. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2009 Jan;24(1):26-34. Snyder KR, Earl JE, O'Connor KM, Ebersole KT. Abstract BACKGROUND: Movement and muscle activity of the hip...

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Chad Reilly September 23, 2014 No Comments

Patellofemoral Pain & Orthotics, Predicting Who Will Benefit

Patellofemoral Pain & Orthotics, Predicting Who Will Benefit

A clinical prediction rule for identifying patients with patellofemoral pain who are likely to benefit from foot orthoses: a preliminary determination. Br J Sports Med. 2010 Sep;44(12):862-6. 26. Vicenzino B1, Collins N, Cleland J, McPoil T. Abstract OBJECTIVE: To develop...

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Chad Reilly September 17, 2014 No Comments

Tibial Stress Fractures in Runners: It’s All the Same Problem

Tibial Stress Fractures in Runners: It’s All the Same Problem

Distinct hip and rearfoot kinematics in female runners with a history of tibial stress fracture. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2010 Feb;40(2):59-66. Milner CE1, Hamill J, Davis IS. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional controlled laboratory study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the...

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Chad Reilly September 16, 2014 No Comments

Kinesio Tape Sure Smells Like Placebo

Kinesio Tape Sure Smells Like Placebo

Current evidence does not support the use of Kinesio Taping in clinical practice: a systematic review. J Physiother. 2014 Mar;60(1):31-9. Parreira Pdo C, Costa Lda C, Hespanhol Junior LC, Lopes AD, Costa LO. Abstract Questions: Is Kinesio Taping more effective than...

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Chad Reilly September 15, 2014 No Comments

Runners with Patellofemoral Pain, Have Altered Hip and Knee Rotational Stress

Runners with Patellofemoral Pain, Have Altered Hip and Knee Rotational Stress

Patellofemoral joint stress during running in females with and without patellofemoral pain. Knee. 2012 Oct;19(5):703-8. Wirtz AD1, Willson JD, Kernozek TW, Hong DA. Abstract Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a common complaint among female runners. The etiology for PFP is frequently...

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Chad Reilly September 9, 2014 No Comments

Foot Orthotics Help Some with Patellofemoral Pain

Foot Orthotics Help Some with Patellofemoral Pain

Foot orthoses and physiotherapy in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: randomised clinical trial. Br J Sports Med. 2009 Mar;43(3):169-71. Collins N1, Crossley K, Beller E, Darnell R, McPoil T, Vicenzino B. Abstract OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical efficacy of...

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Chad Reilly September 5, 2014 No Comments

Total Knee Functional Outcome Measure Doesn’t Measure Function

Total Knee Functional Outcome Measure Doesn’t Measure Function

Comparison of self-reported knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score to performance measures in patients after total knee arthroplasty. PM&R. 2011 Jun;3(6):541-9 Stevens-Lapsley JE1, Schenkman ML, Dayton MR. Abstract OBJECTIVE: To characterize patient outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) by (1)...

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Chad Reilly September 3, 2014 No Comments

Running Volume Increase Effects on Injury

Running Volume Increase Effects on Injury

Can GPS be used to detect deleterious progression in training volume among runners? J Strength Cond Res. 2013 Jun;27(6):1471-8. Nielsen RO1, Cederholm P, Buist I, Sørensen H, Lind M, Rasmussen S. Abstract There is a need to ascertain if an...

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Chad Reilly August 25, 2014 No Comments

Marathon Runners, Running >30 Km/Wk Decreases Risk of Injury

Marathon Runners, Running >30 Km/Wk Decreases Risk of Injury

Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2013 Apr;8(2):111-20. Rasmussen CH, Nielsen RO, Juul MS, Rasmussen S. Abstract PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk...

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Chad Reilly August 22, 2014 No Comments

Patellofemoral Pain Most Associated with Hip Weakness

Patellofemoral Pain Most Associated with Hip Weakness

Influence of the hip on patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review. Sports Health. 2011 Sep;3(5):455-65. Meira EP, Brumitt J. Abstract CONTEXT: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common conditions limiting athletes. There is a growing...

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Chad Reilly August 15, 2014 No Comments

Total Knee Replacement: More than 85% Last at Least 20 Years

Total Knee Replacement: More than 85% Last at Least 20 Years

What is the evidence for total knee arthroplasty in young patients?: a systematic review of the literature. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011 Feb;469(2):574-83. Keeney JA1, Eunice S, Pashos G, Wright RW, Clohisy JC. Abstract BACKGROUND: TKA is commonly performed to...

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Chad Reilly July 30, 2014 No Comments

Post Total Knee Replacement; If You Can Walk Fast for 6 Minutes, You Can Walk Fast for 30.

Post Total Knee Replacement; If You Can Walk Fast for 6 Minutes, You Can Walk Fast for 30.

The six-minute walk test is an excellent predictor of functional ambulation after total knee arthroplasty. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013 Apr 24;14:145. Ko V, Naylor JM, Harris IA, Crosbie J, Yeo AE. Abstract BACKGROUND: The Six-minute walk (6 MW) and Timed-Up-and-Go...

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Chad Reilly May 22, 2014 1 Comment

ACL Repair: Abnormal Gait, Future Arthritis Due to Low Strength

ACL Repair: Abnormal Gait, Future Arthritis Due to Low Strength

The effect of insufficient quadriceps strength on gait after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2002 Jan;17(1):56-63. Lewek M1, Rudolph K, Axe M, Snyder-Mackler L. From the study: BACKGROUND: Individuals following anterior cruciate ligament rupture often demonstrate reduced...

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Chad Reilly May 14, 2014 No Comments

After ACL Repair: Lunges Appear Particularly Safe

After ACL Repair: Lunges Appear Particularly Safe

Rehabilitation after ACL Injury: A Fluoroscopic Study on the Effects of Type of Exercise on the Knee Sagittal Plane Arthrokinematics. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013 Norouzi S1, Esfandiarpour F, Shakourirad A, Salehi R, Akbar M, Farahmand F. From the study: Abstract...

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Chad Reilly May 13, 2014 No Comments

Rehabilitation after ACL Reconstruction: Leg Extensions, Knee Laxity, and Training Load (Not What You Would Expect)

Rehabilitation after ACL Reconstruction: Leg Extensions, Knee Laxity, and Training Load (Not What You Would Expect)

Is knee laxity change after ACL injury and surgery related to open kinetic chain knee extensor training load? Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2009 May;88(5):369-75. Morrissey MC, Perry MC, King JB. From the study: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study...

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Chad Reilly May 13, 2014 No Comments

Wall Squats Not so Good after ACL Reconstruction

Wall Squats Not so Good after ACL Reconstruction

Tibial displacement and rotation during seated knee extension and wall squatting: a comparative study of tibiofemoral kinematics between chronic unilateral anterior cruciate ligament deficient and healthy knees. Knee. 2013 Oct;20(5):346-53. Keays SL1, Sayers M, Mellifont DB, Richardson C. From the...

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Chad Reilly May 12, 2014 No Comments

ACL Reconstruction, Leg Extensions Safe but Timing is Everything

ACL Reconstruction, Leg Extensions Safe but Timing is Everything

Early versus late start of open kinetic chain quadriceps exercises after ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring grafts: a prospective randomized outcome study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2007 Apr;15(4):402-14. Epub 2007 Jan 12. Heijne A, Werner S. From...

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Chad Reilly May 11, 2014 2 Comments

After ACL Repair, Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises Not Enough to Restore Quadriceps Strength

After ACL Repair, Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises Not Enough to Restore Quadriceps Strength

Closed kinetic chain alone compared to combined open and closed kinetic chain exercises for quadriceps strengthening after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with respect to return to sports: a prospective matched follow-up study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2000;8(6):337-42.  Mikkelsen C1,...

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Chad Reilly May 11, 2014 No Comments

Without Aggressive Rehabilitation Function Usually Diminished 1 Year Post-Op after Total Knee Replacement

Without Aggressive Rehabilitation Function Usually Diminished 1 Year Post-Op after Total Knee Replacement

Physical impairments and functional limitations: a comparison of individuals 1 year after total knee arthroplasty with control subjects. Physical Therapy. 1998 Mar;78(3):248-58. From the study: SUBJECTS: Twenty-nine individuals 1 year following TKA (13 women, 16 men) and 40 age- and...

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Chad Reilly May 5, 2014 No Comments

Electric Muscle Stimulation Prevents Atrophy after Total Knee Replacement

Electric Muscle Stimulation Prevents Atrophy after Total Knee Replacement

Early neuromuscular electrical stimulation to improve quadriceps muscle strength after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial. Physical Therapy. 2012 Feb;92(2):210-26. Stevens-Lapsley JE1, Balter JE, Wolfe P, Eckhoff DG, Kohrt WM. From the study: “Sixty-six patients, aged 50 to 85...

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Chad Reilly April 28, 2014 No Comments

Physical Therapy after Total Knee Arthoplasty: Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Causes a Significant Boost in Quadriceps Strength

Physical Therapy after Total Knee Arthoplasty: Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Causes a Significant Boost in Quadriceps Strength

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for quadriceps muscle strengthening after bilateral total knee arthroplasty: a case series. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2004 Jan;34(1):21-9. Abstract STUDY DESIGN: A case series. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this case series was to assess...

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Chad Reilly April 28, 2014 No Comments

Physical Therapy and EMS after Total Knee Arthoplasty: More Current = More Muscle

Physical Therapy and EMS after Total Knee Arthoplasty: More Current = More Muscle

Relationship between intensity of quadriceps muscle neuromuscular electrical stimulation and strength recovery after total knee arthroplasty. Physical Therapy. 2012 Sep;92(9):1187-96. Abstract BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can facilitate the recovery of quadriceps muscle strength after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), yet...

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Chad Reilly April 28, 2014 No Comments

Electric Muscle Stimulation Well Tolerated by Patients at Sufficient Intensities to Strengthen Muscle after Total Knee Replacement

Electric Muscle Stimulation Well Tolerated by Patients at Sufficient Intensities to Strengthen Muscle after Total Knee Replacement

Response of male and female subjects after total knee arthroplasty to repeated neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2010 Jun;89(6):464-72. Abstract OBJECTIVES: To examine responses to repeated neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the quadriceps...

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Chad Reilly April 28, 2014 No Comments

Cortisone, Eccentric vs Heavy Slow Resistance for Patellar Tendinopathy

Cortisone, Eccentric vs Heavy Slow Resistance for Patellar Tendinopathy

Corticosteroid injections, eccentric decline squat training and heavy slow resistance training in patellar tendinopathy. Kongsgaard M, Kovanen V, Aagaard P, Doessing S, Hansen P, Laursen AH, Kaldau NC, Kjaer M, Magnusson SP. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009 Dec;19(6):790-802. Epub...

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Chad Reilly April 25, 2014 4 Comments

Electric Muscle Stimulation BEFORE Total Knee Replacement Improves Outcomes

Electric Muscle Stimulation BEFORE Total Knee Replacement Improves Outcomes

“Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010 Jun 14;11:119. ” <br) BACKGROUND: Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint...

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Chad Reilly April 22, 2014 No Comments

Physical Therapy and EMS: Restores Activation, Strength 1 Year Post TKA

Physical Therapy and EMS: Restores Activation, Strength 1 Year Post TKA

”The use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation to improve activation deficits in a patient with chronic quadriceps strength impairments following total knee arthroplasty. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2006 Sep;36(9):678-85.” This was a single-patient case study of a patient who...

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Chad Reilly April 20, 2014 No Comments

Muscle Deficits Usually Persist Long after Total Knee Replacement

Muscle Deficits Usually Persist Long after Total Knee Replacement

"Muscle deficits persist after unilateral knee replacement and have implications for rehabilitation. Physical Therapy. 2009 Oct;89(10):1072-9." From the study: "Participants were 29 women and 19 men who were 55 to 75 years old and had undergone unilateral knee replacement surgery an...

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Chad Reilly April 18, 2014 No Comments

How Soon Is Too Soon to Lift Weights after Total Knee Arthroplasty?

How Soon Is Too Soon to Lift Weights after Total Knee Arthroplasty?

Progressive strength training (10 RM) commenced immediately after fast-track total knee arthroplasty: is it feasible? Disabil Rehabil. 2012;34(12):1034-40. From the study: “Fourteen patients with unilateral TKA were included from a fast-track orthopedic arthroplasty unit. They received rehabilitation including progressive strength...

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Chad Reilly April 18, 2014 No Comments

Getting the Most out of Your Total Knee, Strength Matters

Getting the Most out of Your Total Knee, Strength Matters

So I read ALL of Dr. Tarlow’s blog, who first suggested I start a blog on my own. It took me a few weeks but I read every post, and learned A LOT about knee surgery from the surgeon's perspective....

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Chad Reilly April 11, 2014 No Comments

Standard PRE as Good as Eccentric Exercise for Jumper’s Knee in Season Volleyball

Standard PRE as Good as Eccentric Exercise for Jumper’s Knee in Season Volleyball

No effect of eccentric training on jumper's knee in volleyball players during the competitive season: a randomized clinical trial. Visnes H, Hoksrud A, Cook J, Bahr R. Clin J Sport Med. 2005 Jul;15(4):227-34. Abstract BACKGROUND: The effect of surgery on...

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Chad Reilly April 11, 2014 No Comments

Decline Squats for Volleyball Players with Patellar Tendinopathy

Decline Squats for Volleyball Players with Patellar Tendinopathy

Eccentric decline squat protocol offers superior results at 12 months compared with traditional eccentric protocol for patellar tendinopathy in volleyball players. Young MA, Cook JL, Purdam CR, Kiss ZS, Alfredson H. Br J Sports Med. 2005 Feb;39(2):102-5. Erratum in: Br...

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Chad Reilly April 10, 2014 No Comments

Decline Squats for Patellar Tendinopathy

Decline Squats for Patellar Tendinopathy

A pilot study of the eccentric decline squat in the management of painful chronic patellar tendinopathy. Purdam CR, Jonsson P, Alfredson H, Lorentzon R, Cook JL, Khan KM. Br J Sports Med. 2004 Aug;38(4):395-7. Abstract OBJECTIVES: This non-randomised pilot study...

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Chad Reilly April 8, 2014 No Comments

Drop Squats vs. Leg Extension/ Curl for Jumper’s Knee

Drop Squats vs. Leg Extension/ Curl for Jumper’s Knee

A randomised clinical trial of the efficacy of drop squats or leg extension/leg curl exercises to treat clinically diagnosed jumper's knee in athletes: pilot study. Cannell LJ, Taunton JE, Clement DB, Smith C, Khan KM. Br J Sports Med. 2001...

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Chad Reilly April 7, 2014 No Comments

Isokinetic Eccentric Exercise for Recurrent Tendinitis

Isokinetic Eccentric Exercise for Recurrent Tendinitis

Treatment of recurrent tendinitis by isokinetic eccentric exercise. Croisier J-L, Forthomme B, Foidart-Dessalle M, Godon B, Crielaard J-M. Isokinetics and Exercise Science. 2001;9:133-141.  Diagnosis:  9 Achilles, 10 patellar, and 15 lateral epicondyllar Outcome:  15/34 patients had complete relief of symptoms,...

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Chad Reilly April 4, 2014 No Comments

Hip Abduction Strength More Important to Function than Quadriceps after TKA

Hip Abduction Strength More Important to Function than Quadriceps after TKA

Hip abduction strength more important to function than quadriceps after Total Knee Arthroplasty. Physical Therapy. Feb 2011; 91(2): 225–233. From the study: Measurements Strength of quadriceps muscles and hip abductors was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Performance-based physical function was...

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Chad Reilly April 3, 2014 No Comments

Evaluation of Eccentric Exercise in Treatment of Patellar Tendinitis

Evaluation of Eccentric Exercise in Treatment of Patellar Tendinitis

Evaluation of eccentric exercise in treatment of patellar tendinitis. Jensen K, Di Fabio RP. Physical Therapy. 1989 Mar;69(3):211-6. Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a quadriceps femoris muscle eccentric training program on strength gain...

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Chad Reilly April 2, 2014 No Comments